There were lots of chores to do. This emphasis began to shift as soon as trench warfare began; militaries rushed improved grenades into mass production, including rifle grenades. "Saps" were temporary, unmanned, often dead-end utility trenches dug out into no-man's land. The Nanpo Bunker (Southern Area Islands Naval Air HQ), which was located east of Airfield Number 2, had enough food, water and ammo for the Japanese to hold out for three months. To consolidate and defend their territory, government and rebel forces have dug trenches and have initiated warfare reminiscent of World War I, with troops staying in and fighting from trenches for months at a time using cement mixers and excavators at their lines for digging network tunnels and deep bunkers for protection. The Americans eventually used flamethrowers and systematic hand-to-hand fighting to oust the defenders. Mines - tunnels under enemy lines packed with explosives and detonated - were widely used in WWI to destroy or disrupt enemy's trench lines. The embanked rear lip of the trench was called the parados. The front trench was lightly garrisoned and typically only occupied in force during "stand to" at dawn and dusk. At 3.10 AM on June 7, 1917, a series of mines was detonated by the British to launch the Battle of Messines. The Allies began producing gas masks to protect their men from the deadly vapor, while at the same time adding poison gas to their arsenal of weapons. On the Western Front it was typically between 90 and 275 metres (100 and 300 yd), though only 25 metres (30 yd) on Vimy Ridge. Soldiers were armed with a range of close-combat weapons when they went on raiding parties (to raid enemy trenches) in case they needed to kill an enemy. Tear gas was first employed in August 1914 by the French, but this could only temporarily disable the enemy. The Anzacs tended to name features after soldiers ("Plugge's Plateau", "Walker's Ridge", "Quinn's Post", "Johnston's Jolly", "Russell's Top", "Brind's Road" and so forth). Attempts to cull hordes of trench rats with rifle bayonets by soldiers were common early in the war, but the rats reproduced faster than they could be killed. Other objectives were named according to their role in the trench system, such as the "Switch Trench" and "Intermediate Trench" on the Somme. The British said it took 450 men 6 hours to build about 250 meters of a trench system. Over each man’s mount, we stuck a rifle and bayonet, with his cap on the rifle butt.”. The Western Front itself was not one long trench but a complicated trench system. In most places, the water table was only a metre or so below the surface, meaning that any trench dug in the ground would quickly flood. 2. In 1914, 12% of wounded British soldiers developed gas gangrene, and at least 100,000 German soldiers died directly from the infection. Many slight hills and valleys were so subtle as to have been nameless until the front line encroached upon them. ", Early in the war, the term referred to what was believed to be the result of an actual physical injury to the nervous system, brought about by exposure to constant shelling.
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